It is not known yet, allegedly Jacob had a thing for numbers, but its significance, its relation with DHARMA and the luck they bring is unknown.
The numbers next to the survivor's name are 4 8 15 16 23 and 42 which of course are the lottery numbers. They are also the numbers that Desmond entered into the computer which he had to do every 108 hours. As it happens, if you add up the lottery numbers they add up to 108. The significance of 108 is huge in all religions, geometry, physics, and astrology. I googled significance of 108 and got so much info. I'm not sure how the writers are using this info.